电源防雷器是怎样实现分级防护的?
时间: 2022-08-25 02:34:45 浏览次(ci)数:326
电源 防雷器 是如何实现分级防护的? 一级防雷器可以对于直接雷击电流进行泄放,或者当电源传输线路遭受直接雷击时传导的巨大能量进行泄放,对于有可能发生直接雷击的地方,必
      电源防雷器是如何实现分级防护的?
 
      一级(ji)(ji)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)可以对(dui)(dui)(dui)于直(zhi)接雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)击(ji)电流进(jin)行泄放(fang),或者当电源(yuan)传(chuan)输线路(lu)遭受直(zhi)接雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)击(ji)时(shi)(shi)传(chuan)导的(de)巨大(da)能(neng)(neng)量进(jin)行泄放(fang),对(dui)(dui)(dui)于有(you)可能(neng)(neng)发生直(zhi)接雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)击(ji)的(de)地(di)方(fang),必须进(jin)行CLASS—I的(de)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)。第(di)二级(ji)(ji)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)是针对(dui)(dui)(dui)前级(ji)(ji)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)残余电压(ya)以及区内感应雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)击(ji)的(de)防(fang)(fang)护设(she)备,对(dui)(dui)(dui)于前级(ji)(ji)发生较大(da)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)击(ji)能(neng)(neng)量吸收时(shi)(shi),仍有(you)一部分对(dui)(dui)(dui)设(she)备或第(di)三级(ji)(ji)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)而(er)言是相当巨大(da)的(de)能(neng)(neng)量会传(chuan)导过(guo)来,需(xu)要第(di)二级(ji)(ji)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)进(jin)一步吸收。同时(shi)(shi),经过(guo)一级(ji)(ji)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)传(chuan)输线路(lu)也会感应雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)击(ji)电磁(ci)脉冲(chong)辐射(she)LEMP,当线路(lu)足够(gou)长(zhang)感应雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)的(de)能(neng)(neng)量就(jiu)变得足够(gou)大(da),需(xu)要第(di)二级(ji)(ji)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)进(jin)一步对(dui)(dui)(dui)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)击(ji)能(neng)(neng)量实(shi)施泄放(fang)。第(di)三级(ji)(ji)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)是对(dui)(dui)(dui)LEMP和(he)通过(guo)第(di)二级(ji)(ji)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)残余雷(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)击(ji)能(neng)(neng)量进(jin)行保(bao)护。
 
      一级保护:
      目的(de)是(shi)防止浪涌电压直(zhi)接从LPZ0区(qu)传(chuan)导(dao)进入LPZ1区(qu),将数万(wan)至数十万(wan)伏(fu)的(de)浪涌电压限制(zhi)到2500—3000V。
 
      入(ru)户电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力变压(ya)(ya)器(qi)低(di)压(ya)(ya)侧安装的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)防雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)作为(wei)一(yi)级(ji)保(bao)护时(shi)应(ying)为(wei)三相电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)开(kai)关(guan)型电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)防雷(lei)(lei)器(qi),其雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)通流(liu)量不应(ying)低(di)于60KA。该级(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)防雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)应(ying)是连接在用(yong)户供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统入(ru)口进线各(ge)相和大(da)(da)地之间的(de)(de)大(da)(da)容量电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)防雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)。一(yi)般(ban)要求该级(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)防雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)具备每相100KA以(yi)上的(de)(de)大(da)(da)冲击容量,要求的(de)(de)限制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)小(xiao)于1500V,称之为(wei)CLASSI级(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)防雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)。这些电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁防雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)是专为(wei)承受雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和感(gan)应(ying)雷(lei)(lei)击的(de)(de)大(da)(da)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)以(yi)及吸引高能量浪(lang)(lang)涌而设(she)(she)计的(de)(de),可将大(da)(da)量的(de)(de)浪(lang)(lang)涌电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)分流(liu)到大(da)(da)地。它们仅(jin)提供限制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(冲击电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)流(liu)过电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)防雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)时(shi),线路上出现的(de)(de)大(da)(da)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)称为(wei)限制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya))为(wei)中等级(ji)别(bie)的(de)(de)保(bao)护,因为(wei)CLASSI级(ji)保(bao)护器(qi)主要是对大(da)(da)浪(lang)(lang)涌电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)进行吸收,仅(jin)靠它们是不能完全保(bao)护供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统内部(bu)的(de)(de)敏感(gan)用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)(she)备的(de)(de)。
 
      一(yi)级电源防(fang)雷器可防(fang)范10/350μs、100KA的雷电波,达到(dao)IEC规定的高防(fang)护(hu)标(biao)准。其技术参考为(wei):雷电通(tong)流(liu)量大于(yu)或(huo)等于(yu)100KA(10/350μs);残压值不大于(yu)2.5KV;响应(ying)时间小于(yu)或(huo)等于(yu)100ns。
 
      第二级防护:
      目的是进一步(bu)将通(tong)过(guo)一级防(fang)雷器的残余浪涌电(dian)压的值限制到(dao)1500—2000V,对LPZ1—LPZ2实(shi)施(shi)等电(dian)位连接(jie)。
 
      分配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)柜(ju)线路输出的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)作为第(di)(di)二级保(bao)护时(shi)应(ying)为限(xian)压(ya)型电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)器(qi),其雷(lei)(lei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流容量不应(ying)低于20KA,应(ying)安装在向(xiang)重(zhong)要(yao)或敏感用(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)备供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)分路配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)处(chu)。这些电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)对(dui)于通过(guo)了用(yong)(yong)户供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)入口处(chu)浪涌(yong)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)(de)剩余(yu)浪涌(yong)能量进(jin)行(xing)更完善的(de)(de)吸收,对(dui)于瞬(shun)态过(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)具有(you)极好(hao)的(de)(de)抑制(zhi)作用(yong)(yong)。该处(chu)使用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)要(yao)求的(de)(de)大(da)冲(chong)击容量为每相(xiang)45kA以上,要(yao)求的(de)(de)限(xian)制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)应(ying)小于1200V,称之为CLASSⅡ级电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)防(fang)(fang)雷(lei)(lei)器(qi)。一(yi)般用(yong)(yong)户供(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统做到第(di)(di)二级保(bao)护就可(ke)以达到用(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)备运行(xing)的(de)(de)要(yao)求了。
 
      第二级电源防雷(lei)器采用(yong)C类(lei)保护器进行相—中、相—地以及中—地的全模式保护,主要(yao)技术参(can)数为:雷(lei)电通流容量大(da)于(yu)(yu)或等于(yu)(yu)40KA(8/20μs);残压(ya)峰(feng)值不大(da)于(yu)(yu)1000V;响应时间不大(da)于(yu)(yu)25ns。
 
      第三(san)级保护(hu):
      目(mu)的(de)(de)是终(zhong)保护(hu)设(she)备的(de)(de)手段,将(jiang)残余浪涌(yong)电压的(de)(de)值降低到1000V以内,使浪涌(yong)的(de)(de)能量(liang)不致损坏设(she)备。
 
      在(zai)电(dian)子信息设(she)备交(jiao)流电(dian)源(yuan)进线端安装的电(dian)源(yuan)防雷器作为(wei)第三(san)级(ji)保护时应为(wei)串联式限压型电(dian)源(yuan)防雷器,其雷电(dian)通(tong)流容量不(bu)应低于10KA。的(de)(de)防(fang)线可在用(yong)电(dian)(dian)设(she)备内部(bu)电(dian)(dian)源部(bu)分采用(yong)一(yi)(yi)个内置式的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)源防(fang)雷(lei)器,以达到完全(quan)消除微小(xiao)的(de)(de)瞬(shun)态过电(dian)(dian)压的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)。该处(chu)使用(yong)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)源防(fang)雷(lei)器要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)(de)大(da)冲击容量为(wei)每相20KA或(huo)更低(di)一(yi)(yi)些,要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)(de)限制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)压应小(xiao)于(yu)1000V。对于(yu)一(yi)(yi)些特别重(zhong)要(yao)或(huo)特别敏感的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)子设(she)备具备第三级(ji)保(bao)护是(shi)必要(yao)的(de)(de),同时(shi)也可以保(bao)护用(yong)电(dian)(dian)设(she)备免受系统内部(bu)产生的(de)(de)瞬(shun)态过电(dian)(dian)压影响。
 
      对(dui)于微波通(tong)信设备、移动机站通(tong)信设备及雷达(da)设备等使用的整流(liu)电(dian)源(yuan),宜视其工作电(dian)压(ya)的保(bao)护(hu)需(xu)要分别选(xuan)用工作电(dian)压(ya)适配的直流(liu)电(dian)源(yuan)防雷器作为末级保(bao)护(hu)。

      第四(si)级及以上:
      根据被保(bao)护(hu)设(she)备的(de)(de)耐压等级(ji),假如两(liang)级(ji)防雷(lei)就(jiu)可(ke)以做(zuo)到限制电(dian)压低(di)(di)于设(she)备的(de)(de)耐压水(shui)(shui)平,就(jiu)只需要(yao)做(zuo)两(liang)级(ji)保(bao)护(hu),假如设(she)备的(de)(de)耐压水(shui)(shui)平较(jiao)低(di)(di),可(ke)能需要(yao)四级(ji)甚至(zhi)更多级(ji)的(de)(de)保(bao)护(hu)。第(di)四级(ji)保(bao)护(hu)其雷(lei)电(dian)通流容量不应低(di)(di)于5KA。
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